Purpose: We aimed to evaluate choroidal perfusion changes in obese patients using optical coherence tomography and dynamic contour tonometry, to determine whether these changes are associated with body mass index, and to assess the ocular effects of insulin resistance.
Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the data of 32 obese patients with body mass index >30 kg/m2 and 45 healthy control individuals. Intraocular pressure and ocular pulse amplitude values of the patients were measured using dynamic contour tonometry, and the mean choroidal thickness was measured using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance index.
Results: The mean choroidal thickness (294.30 ± 60.87 µm) and ocular pulse amplitude (2.10 ± 0.74) were lower, whereas the mean intraocular pressure (16.61 ± 2.35 mmHg) was higher in obese patients than in controls. There was a significant negative correlation between body mass index and ocular pulse amplitude (r=-0.274; p=0.029) and an insignificant negative correlation between mean choroidal thickness, intraocular pressure, and body mass index. There was an insignificant negative correlation between homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance index, mean choroidal thickness, and intraocular pressure and significant negative correlation between homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance index and ocular pulse amplitude (r=-0.317; p=0.022).
Conclusion: We found reduced mean choroidal thickness and ocular pulse amplitude and increased mean intraocular pressure in obese patients. These changes indicated a decrease in choroidal perfusion and ocular blood flow. It may be possible to detect ocular blood flow changes in obese patients through noninvasive assessment using the choroid. The negative correlation between insulin resistance and ocular pulse amplitude may be associated with intracellular fat accumulation in obese patients.
Keywords: Obesity; Insulin resistance; Choroidal perfusion; Dynamic contour tonometry; Optical coherence tomography
Purpose: This study reports the effects of combined use of oral doxycycline and topical cyclosporine on ocular signs, symptoms, and tear film parameters in rosacea patients.
Methods: Fifty-four right eyes of 54 patients were included in this study. All patients underwent full ophthalmologic examination-including best corrected visual acuity measurement, slit-lamp anterior segment and fundus examination, tear film break-up time, and Schirmer test-before treatment and six months post-treatment. Patients were divided into two treatment groups. The first group was treated with oral doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for the first month and once daily for the following two months. The second group received topical 0.05% cyclosporine emulsion drops twice daily for six months in addition to the oral doxycycline treatment regimen. All patients received preservative-free artificial tear drops, warm compress, eyelash cleaning, and topical corticosteroid drops three times daily for one month.
Results: A significant improvement in ocular signs and symptoms was recorded for all patients in groups 1 and 2 after treatment. There was not a significant difference in terms of itching, burning, meibomian gland inspissation, corneal neovascularization, and conjunctival hyperemia score changes between groups 1 and 2. The increases in Schirmer test and break-up time scores were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1.
Conclusions: Our results support the finding that topical cyclosporine in addition to the standard regimen improves tear function, as shown by Schirmer test and break-up time scores, in ocular rosacea patients.
Keywords: Rosacea/drug therapy; Tears; Doxycycline/therapeutic use; Cyclosporine/therapeutic use; Administration, oral; Drug therapy, combination
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of superior blepharoplasty on the tear film using the corneal topographer Keratograph 5M.
Methods: A prospective study was performed of 27 eyes of 14 patients with superior dermatochalasis who underwent superior blepharoplasty between May and June 2016. Conservative upper eyelid blepharoplasty was performed by an en bloc resection of anterior lamellar tissue that included skin, subcutaneous tissue, and the orbicularis oculi muscle. All the eyes were imaged using the noninvasive tear breakup time tools of the Keratograph 5M. The following parameters were recorded in each patient before and 6 weeks after surgery: first noninvasive Keratograph 5M tear breakup time (the time at which the first breakup of tears occurs) and average noninvasive Keratograph 5M tear breakup time (the average time of all breakup incidents). The exclusion criteria were ophthalmological pathology, previous eyelid surgery, use of eye drops, systemic pathology, and medication that interferes with lacrimal tears.
Results: The mean age of the patients was 65.1 years (range, 51-84); 86% were female. Student’s t-test was used to compare the values of first and average noninvasive Keratograph 5M tear breakup times before and after surgery. The values for first noninvasive Keratograph 5M tear breakup time evaluated before and after surgery were not significantly different (9.04 and 8.71, respectively; p=0.926). The values for average noninvasive Keratograph 5M tear breakup time evaluated before and after surgery were also not significantly different (13.01 seconds and 13.14 seconds, respectively; p=0.835).
Conclusions: The results of this pilot study suggest that upper blepharoplasty does not affect tear breakup time according to the objective evaluation of breakup time with the Keratograph 5M.
Keywords: Blepharoplasty; Dry eye syndrome; Tears; Optometry/ instrumentation
Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the visual quality performance of scleral contact lenses in patients with keratoconus, pellucid marginal degeneration, and post-keratoplasty astigmatism, and their impact on quality of life.
Methods: We included 40 patients (58 eyes) with keratoconus, pellucid marginal degeneration, and post-keratoplasty astigmatism who were examined between October 2014 and June 2017 and fitted with scleral contact lenses in this study. Before fitting scleral contact lenses, we noted refraction, uncorrected distance visual acuity, spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity, uncorrected contrast sensitivity, and spectacle-corrected contrast sensitivity. We performed corneal topography on and applied a questionnaire that included the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire to all participants. We recorded corrected contrast sensitivity and corrected distance visual acuity on the third month after fitting scleral contact lenses and requested that subjects repeat the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire.
Results: The mean age of patients was 28.12 ± 13.19 years. Mean logMAR uncorrected distance visual acuity, spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity, and corrected distance visual acuity with scleral contact lenses were 0.91 ± 0.21 (0.40-1.80), 0.57 ± 0.12 (0.10-1.80), and 0.16 ± 0.02 (0.00-1.30), respectively. We observed significantly higher corrected distance visual acuity with scleral contact lenses compared with uncorrected distance visual acuity and spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity (p<0.05). Mean uncorrected contrast sensitivity, spectacle-corrected contrast sensitivity and CCS with scleral contact lenses were 0.97 ± 0.12 (0.30-1.65), 1.16 ± 0.51 (0.30-1.80), and 1.51 ± 0.25 (0.90-1.80), respectively. Significantly higher contrast sensitivity levels were recorded with scleral contact lenses compared with those recorded with uncorrected contrast sensitivity and spectacle-corrected contrast sensitivity (p<0.05). We found the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire overall score for patients with scleral contact lens treatment to be significantly higher compared with that for patients with uncorrected sight (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Scleral contact lenses are an effective alternative visual correction method for keratoconus, pellucid marginal degeneration, and post-keratoplasty astigmatism. A significant increase in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity can be obtained with scleral contact lenses in patients with irregular corneas.
Keywords: Keratoconus; Corneal topography; Contrast sensitivity; Sclera; Contact lenses; Sickness impact profile; Visual acuity; Quality of life
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of air pollution on the ocular surface of patients with Sjögren’s syndrome.
Methods: We investigated the ocular surfaces of thirty patients with Sjögren’s syndrome and thirty healthy volunteers (control group) living in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. We used nitrogen dioxide as an indicator of exposure to air pollution. An ocular symptoms questionnaire was answered by all subjects, who also underwent a complete ocular surface ophthalmic examination-including an Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, biomicroscopy, tear breakup time, Schirmer 1 test, corneal and conjunctival vital staining with fluorescein and lissamine green, tear lysozyme concentration, and impression cytology.
Results: In almost all ocular surface test findings, we found a positive and significant correlation between higher levels of exposure to air pollution and higher levels of ocular surface damage in both the control group and Sjögren’s syndrome patients. In Sjögren’s syndrome patients, the Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, tear breakup time, vital staining and impression cytology showed a significant correlation between high levels of air pollution and ocular surface disease. In the control group, the Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, tear breakup time, and impression cytology showed a significant correlation between high levels of air pollution and ocular surface disease.
Conclusions: Here we demonstrated that in patients with dry eye syndrome associated with Sjögren, abnormalities of the ocular surface and eye irritation related to air pollution are more severe than those in the control group. We believe that measuring air quality should be not only an integral part of the evaluation of ocular surface disease but also a therapeutic consideration.
Keywords: Nitrogen dioxide; Ocular surface; Air pollution; Dry eye syndromes; Sjögren’s syndrome
Purpose: To evaluate whether any topical anti-glaucoma medications increase the risk of lacrimal drainage system obstruction or whether the presence of preservatives alone is sufficient to generate obstruction.
Methods: This nested case-control study compared a group of patients with lacrimal duct obstruction who received topical anti-glaucoma medications to a control group of patients without obstruction.
Results: The medical records of 255 patients with glaucoma who consulted the Oculoplastic Section with complaints of watery eyes were reviewed. Among these patients, 59 exhibited lacrimal drainage obstruction. Ninety-four percent of patients with lacrimal drainage obstruction used beta-blockers, and 41% used prostaglandin analogs. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for age, sex, and the use of other medications. No significant differences were observed regarding the topical anti-glaucoma medications used between groups.
Conclusion: No single topical anti-glaucoma medication demonstrated a stronger association with the development of lacrimal duct obstruction.
Keywords: Lacrimal duct obstruction; Glaucoma; Preservatives pharmaceutical; Lacrimal apparatus diseases; Ophthalmic solutions
Purpose: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome has been linked to impaired function of the heart and blood vessels. We conducted a study to investigate the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the etiopathogenesis of pseudoexfoliation syndrome.
Methods: The subjects were 14 patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and 14 healthy controls who underwent cataract extraction. Preoperative 5-ml samples of peripheral venous blood and perioperative aqueous humor were collected from the patients in both groups. Plasma and aqueous humor renin levels were analyzed by an immunoradiometric method, and angiotensin II levels were analyzed by radioimmunassay. SPSS version 16.0 was used for statistical analyses. A p-value <0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference.
Results: The mean ages of the patients in pseudoexfoliation and control groups were 71.7 ± 7.1 and 67.4 ± 9.3 years, respectively (p=0.140). The median aqueous humor renin level was 7.73 pg/ml (4.15-21) in the control group and 11.95 pg/ml (3.75-18.54) in pseudoexfoliation group (p=0.022). There were no differences between the two groups in the plasma renin, plasma angiotensin II, or aqueous humor angiotensin II levels. The correlations between plasma and aqueous humor renin levels and between plasma and aqueous humor angiotensin II levels were examined separately for each group; no significant correlations were observed in pseudoexfoliation group (r=-0.440, p=0.115; r=-0.414, p=0.142) or the control group (r=-0.232, p=0.425; r=0.482, p=0.081).
Conclusion: Aqueous humor renin levels are higher in pseudoexfoliation syndrome. The results indicate a probable role of renin-angiotensin system in pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Further studies with larger numbers of cases are needed to clarify the precise association of renin-angiotensin system with the etiopathogenesis of pseudoexfoliation syndrome.
Keywords: Exfoliation syndrome/etiology; Renin-angiotensin system; Receptor, angiotensin, type 2; Peripheral vascular diseases
Purpose: To report demographic features and surgical outcomes of 320 children undergoing external dacryocystorhinostomy for dacryostenosis.
Methods: We performed a retrospective evaluation of the records of patients aged <16 years who underwent external dacryocystorhinostomy. Patient demographic features and success rates of the operations were analyzed from the data records. Children with <12-month follow-up were not enrolled in the study.
Results: We identified 326 operative records of 320 children (162 [50.6%] girls and 158 [49.4%] boys) who underwent external dacryocystorhinostomy with a mean follow-up of 26.03 ± 11.11 months. Overall, we evaluated 116 (35.6%) cases of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Our series demonstrated a 99.4% success rate for external dacryocystorhinostomy.
Conclusions: External dacryocystorhinostomy in children has a high success rate if performed by an experienced oculoplastic surgeon.
Keywords: Dacryocystorhinostomy; Nasolacrimal duct; Nasal obstruction; Treatment outcome in Humans; Child; Preschool Children; Adolescents
Purpose: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of eye drops containing a combination of sodium hyaluronate and trehalose and sodium hyaluronate for the treatment of corneal cross-linking and epithelial healing.
Methods: This study included 46 eyes of 23 keratoconus patients who underwent corneal cross-linking on both eyes. Unpreserved trehalose 30 mg/mL and sodium hyaluronate 1.5 mg/mL (Thealoz Duo®; Thea, France) were applied six times a day on one eye of each patient and unpreserved sodium hyaluronate 0.15% (Eye Still®; Teka, Inc., Istanbul) was applied on the other eye. Patients were examined daily until complete re-epithelialization. Postoperative examinations to assess the measured size of epithelial defect were performed using slit-lamp biomicroscopy.
Results: The study included 23 patients (13 females and 10 males) with a mean age of 20.9 ± 10.3 years. Corneal epithelial healing time after cross-linking was 2.3 ± 1.2 days for the trehalose and sodium hyaluronate group and 3.8 ± 2.9 days for the sodium hyaluronate group (p=0.03).
Conclusion: The application of eye drops containing the combination of trehalose and sodium hyaluronate resulted in faster corneal re-epithelialization following corneal cross-linking than that of eye drops containing sodium hyaluronate alone.
Keywords: Keratoconus; Epithelium, corneal; Wound healing; Trehalose; Hyaluronic acid; Ophthalmic solutions; Cross-linking reagents
Purpose: To determine the release profile of moxifloxacin encapsulated in liposomes in the aqueous humor as a controlled release system for intracameral application.
Methods: Liposomes containing moxifloxacin were obtained using the lipid film hydration method and were characterized by particle size and encapsulation efficiency. Female rabbits were used for the in vivo profile release study. Liposomes containing moxifloxacin was injected into the anterior chamber of the right eye of each animal. The rabbits were divided into five groups, and a sample of aqueous humor was collected 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 h after administration of liposomes containing moxifloxacin administration. Moxifloxacin concentrations in the aqueous humor were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography.
Results: The average size of the liposomes containing moxifloxacin was 60.5 ± 0.72 nm with a particle size distribution of 0.307. The encapsulation efficiency of moxifloxacin in liposomes was 92.24 ± 0.24%. The results of an in vivo release study of liposomes containing moxifloxacin, showed that the maximum moxifloxacin concentration was achieved within the first 2 h after administration (5.27 ± 1.09 mg/mL) and was followed by a decrease in intracameral concentration (0.35 ± 0.05 mg/mL) until the 24 h mark.
Conclusions: The in vivo experiments resulted in liposomes containing moxifloxacin that were homogenous in size and exhibited high drug encapsulation efficiency. The results indicate that liposomes containing moxifloxacin offers a satisfactory aqueous humor release profile after intracameral application.
Keywords: Nanotechnology; Nanoparticles; Liposomes; Drug delivery system; Moxifloxacin; Endophthalmitis; Fluoroquinolones; Animals; Rabbit
Although minimally invasive glaucoma surgery using different types of implants is a promising strategy for treating glaucoma, potential long-term complications require further evaluation. Here, we report a case of the anterior chamber displacement of a Xen implant due to a maneuver aimed at correcting a dysfunctional and bent subconjunctival implant.
Keywords: Glaucoma; Filtering surgery; Minimally invasive surgical procedures/methods; Anterior chamber
Uveal melanoma is the most common adult primary intraocular cancer. Although liver metastasis is common to the natural history of the disease, metastasis to the fellow eye is extremely rare. Here we report the case of a 59-year-old man with choroidal melanoma in his right eye who underwent enucleation at a different center. The patient was referred to our service 21 months postoperatively, complaining of decreased vision. He was found to have a new pigmented choroidal tumor in his left eye associated with liver disease. Ocular ultrasonography and liver biopsy with histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis were performed and confirmed the diagnosis. Few similar cases have been described in the literature. The differential diagnosis included primary bilateral choroidal melanoma and metastatic choroidal tumor from a primary skin melanoma.
Keywords: Choroid neoplasms/secondary; Melanoma; Neoplasms metastasis; Diagnosis, differential
Trichothiodystrophy belongs to a group of rare genetic diseases characterized by DNA repair anomalies. Ocular manifestations can occur in 50% of cases, including cataract, refractive errors, strabismus, microcornea, microphthalmia, dry eye, and pigmentary macular changes. We report a case of childhood glaucoma in a patient with trichothiodystrophy who underwent trabeculectomy in the left eye. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical report of childhood glaucoma associated with trichothiodystrophy.
Keywords: Trichothiodystrophy syndromes; Glaucoma; Xeroderma pigmentosum; DNA repair-deficiency disorders; Ocular manifestations; Humans; Case reports
Alström syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by mutations to the ALMS1 gene and clinical findings of childhood obesity, diabetes mellitus, dilated cardiomyopathy, sensorineural hearing loss, and progressive cone-rod dystrophy, which may result in blindness. Ocular manifestations occur in the first decade of life with nystagmus, blepharospasm, and photophobia leading to progressive and severe reductions in visual acuity. This study describes the retinal structure and functional aspects of four patients (8 eyes) from two different families as determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus autofluorescence, and full-field electroretinography. There was a correlation between morphological and functional findings, evidenced by typical funduscopic changes of retinal dystrophy in spectral domain-OCT and electrophysiological analyses. Foveal characteristics include a single layer of undifferentiated photoreceptors with retinal disorganization mainly from external segments, in agreement with previous reports in the literature. Fundus autofluorescence showed areas of hyperautofluorescence interspersed by hypoautofluorescence dots suggesting, respectively, involvement and atrophy of retinal pigmented epithelial cells in the macular zone. Electroretinographic analyses showed early dysfunction of the cones followed by rapid rod deterioration.
Keywords: Alström syndrome; Electrophysiology; Autofluorescence; Optical coherence tomography; Retinal dystrophy
A retrospective and analytical study was conducted by using data from the National Transplantation System on 184,575 corneal transplantations performed between January 2001 and December 2016 in order to analyze the trends in corneal transplantation from 2001 to 2016 in Brazil. The Cochran-Armitage test, analysis of variance, and Duncan’s multiple comparisons were used to verify the existence of trends, compare the mean values between regions, and verify the mean differences, respectively. A significance level of 5% was used for all tests. The analysis showed that there was a 2.4-fold increase in the number of corneal transplantations (from 6,193 [35.2 per million people (pmp)] to 14,641 [71 pmp]; p<0.001), a 50.7% increase in the efficacy of meeting the population’s demand for corneal transplantation (from 35.3% to 53.2%; p<0.001), an 11-fold increase in the number of corneal transplantation centers (from 32 to 356), and a 2.5-fold increase in the number of corneal transplantation teams (from 276 to 688) in Brazil during the period studied. The waiting list for corneal transplantation decreased by 45.4% (from 23,549 [123 pmp] to 12,865 [62.4 pmp]; p<0.001), and the corneal transplantation teams performed about 19 corneal transplantations per year. The best indices were observed in the southern, midwestern, and southeastern regions, and the worst indices were in the northern and northeastern regions. Brazil has been improving its capacity to perform corneal transplantation in the past 16 years, although this improvement varies across regions. However, the population’s demand for corneal transplantation is yet to be satisfactorily met, primarily due to the low number of corneal donations.
Keywords: Health profile; Corneal diseases; Corneal transplantation; Directed tissue donation; Brazil